Job Description And Job Specification

Job Description and Specification-Do they play a major role?


  • Recruitment is a very important task, as it involves a chain of activities.
  • The first step for it is job analysis, which is conducted by employing various methods like surveys, questionnaires and interviews.
  • After that a statement is prepared what a particular job demand and that statement are known as the job description and this statement is the mirror of job analysis.
  • With the help of job description, job specification is created which specifies the precise human requirements of the job.
  • Job description lists out the job title, tasks, duties, roles and responsibilities with respect to the particular job.
  • Job specification is concerned with the listing of incumbent’s qualification, skills and abilities that are needed to discharge the job efficiently.

Job description

Many-a-times a company sets out to hire an employee but then wonder what tasks should be assigned to such a recruit. This is where a job description is essential, necessary and mandatory before the company starts hiring.

The job description is an extremely informative, organized and factual document which gives all the details relating to the job to be performed.

Reasons to have job description as a part of planning the workforce needs of any business

The following are the key parameters:

  • A detailed explanation of the roles and responsibilities of the post advertised.
  • Most applicants will ask for this before applying for the job – they want to know what is involved!
  • Refers to the post rather than a person.

Contents of job description

  • Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern.
  • The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job.
  • The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
  • Necessary qualifications that are required for the job.
  • Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
  • The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in the performance of that job.

Purpose of job description

  • The main purpose of the job description is to collect job-related data in order to advertise for a particular job.
  • It helps in attracting, targeting, recruiting and selecting the right candidate for the right job.
  • It is done to determine what needs to be delivered in a particular job.
  • It clarifies what employees are supposed to do if selected for that particular job opening.
  • It gives recruiting staff a clear view what kind of candidate is required by a particular department to perform a specific task.
  • It also clarifies who will report to whom.

Advantages of job description

  • It helps supervises in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances.
  • It helps in recruitment and selection procedures.
  • It assists in manpower planning.
  • It is beneficial in performance appraisal.
  • It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about the rate of remuneration for a specific job.
  • It also helps in chalking training and development programs.

Such a detailed statement serves as an important recruiting tool for the interviewer and makes his job relatively easier as he/she then has to only look at whether the profile of the candidate matches the job description or not, thereby making the filtration process quicker and more systematic.

Job Specification

Job specification gives the detailed specification of the ideal candidate to be hired for that job.

Reasons to have job specification as a part of planning the workforce needs of any business

The following are the key parameters:

  • Sets out the kind of qualifications, skills, experience and personal attributes a successful candidate should possess.
  • A vital tool in comparing and assessing the suitability of job applicants
  • Refers to the person rather than the post.

Contents of job specification

  • Job title and designation
  • Educational qualifications for that title
  • Physical and other related attributes
  • Physique and mental health
  • Special attributes and abilities
  • Maturity and dependability
  • Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.

Purpose of job specification

  • Job specification helps candidates analyze whether are eligible to apply for a particular job vacancy or not.
  • It helps recruiting team of an organization to understand what level of qualifications, qualities and set of characteristics should be present in a candidate to make him or her eligible for the job opening.
  • Job specification gives detailed information about any job including job responsibilities, desired technical and physical skills, conversational ability and much more.

Advantages of job specification

  • It is helping in preliminary screening in the selection in the selection procedure.
  • It helps in giving due justification to each job.
  • It also helps in designing training and development programs.
  • It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees.
  • It helps job evaluation.
  • It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the employees.
  • It helps in selecting the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.

Job specification enables the recruiter to select the right person for the job and helps in reducing the risks of mis-hire.

Key Differences Between Job Description and Job Specification

The difference between job description and job specification can be drawn clearly on the following grounds:

1)Job Description is a descriptive statement that describes the role, responsibility, duties and scope of a particular job. Job Specification states the minimum qualifications required for performing a particular job.

2)Job Description is the outcome of Job Analysis while Job specification is the result of Job Description.

3) Job Description describes jobs, but Job Specification describes job holders.

4) The job description is a summary of what an employee will do after getting selected. Conversely, Job Specification is a statement showing what a person must possess for getting selected.

5) Job Description contains designation, place of work, scope, working hours, responsibilities, reporting authority, salary range. On the other hand, Job Specification contains educational qualifications, experience, skills, knowledge, age, abilities, work orientation factors.

The job description describes activities to be done while the job specification lists the knowledge skills and abilities of the individual to perform the job satisfactorily.

Without proper job analysis by the human resource department, it is difficult for any organization to remain competitive and be able to attract and retain talent.

Are you also facing the problem in the Recruitment and Selection process?

Then do check our HR software to quicker the procedure.

factoHR is one such tool which provides you the module of “Recruitment Solution”, where there is a facility to set Job Description and Specification, using which your company can select the right talent for the right job for your progressive business.

To know more about factoHR – HR and Payroll software, please contact +91 782 000 3100 or visit

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Aniruddha Nagodara

Aniruddh Nagodara is the CEO at Version Systems Pvt Ltd. He develops a world class organization with focus in HR & Retirement Benefits. He is leader in the organization for company's Business Development, Partnership, HR and Finance function. He is also instrumental for implementing best HR practices in organization to make Version Systems a Great place to work.